What is a vaccine? Vaccine may be a product that stimulates an individual’s system to supply immunity to a selected disease, protecting the person from that disease. Vaccines are in general administered through injections, but also can be administered orally […]
What is a vaccine?
Vaccine may be a product that stimulates an individual’s system to supply immunity to a selected disease, protecting the person from that disease.
Vaccines are in general administered through injections, but also can be administered orally or sprayed into the nose and eyes.
What are the advantages of getting a COVID19 vaccine?
Vaccination will prevent you from getting COVID19 or from becoming seriously ill or dying by COVID19 virus.
It will prevent you from spreading the COVID-19 virus to others. As we increase the amount of individuals within the community who are shielded from getting COVID-19 making it harder for the disease to spread and contributing to herd immunity.
Vaccination will prevent the COVID-19 virus from spreading and replicating.
Which COVID vaccines are authorized and the way do they work?
Currently, several COVID 19 vaccines are in clinical trials. The U.S FDA has approved following three vaccines:
- Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine
- Moderna COVID-19 vaccine
- Janssen/Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine
1. Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine:
The Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine is 95.3% effective in preventing the COVID-19 virus with symptoms in people age 15 and older.
The vaccine is 100% effective in preventing the COVID-19 virus in children ages twelve to fifteen.
This vaccine is for people age 12 and older. It requires two injections given 21 days apart. The second dose is often given up to 6 weeks after the primary dose, if needed.
2. Moderna COVID-19 vaccine:
The Moderna COVID-19 vaccine is 94% effective in preventing the COVID-19 virus with symptoms.
Moderna vaccine is for people age 18 and older. It requires two injections given 28 days apart. The second dose is often given up to 6 weeks after the primary dose, if needed.
3. Janssen/Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine:
In clinical trials, this vaccine was 66% effective in preventing the COVID-19 virus with symptoms as of 14 days after vaccination.
The vaccine also was 85% effective at preventing severe disease with the COVID-19 virus a minimum of 28 days after vaccination. This vaccine is for people age 18 and older. It requires one injection.
The FDA and therefore the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have recommended that use of this vaccine continue within the U.S. because the advantages outweigh the risks.
If you’re given this vaccine, you ought to be educated about the possible risks and symptoms of a blood coagulation problem.
Both the Pfizer-BioNTech and therefore the Moderna COVID-19 vaccines use messenger RNA (mRNA).
Coronaviruses have a spike-like structure on their body surface called an S protein. COVID-19 mRNA vaccines give cells instructions for a way to form a harmless piece of an S protein.
After vaccination, your cells start production of protein pieces and start displaying them on cell surfaces.
Your system will recognize that the protein doesn’t belong there and start building an immune reaction and making antibodies.
The Janssen/Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine may be a vector vaccine. During this sort of vaccine, genetic material from the COVID-19 virus is inserted into a special weakened live virus, like an adenovirus.
When the weakened virus (viral vector) gets into your cells, it delivers genetic material from the COVID-19 virus that provides your cells instructions to form copies of the S protein.
Once your cells display the S proteins on their surfaces, your system responds by creating antibodies and defensive white blood cells. If a person becomes infected with the COVID-19 virus, the antibodies will fight the virus.
Viral vector vaccines cannot cause infection in vaccinated people so there is no chance to become infected with the COVID-19 virus or the viral vector virus. Also, the genetic material that’s delivered doesn’t become a part of your DNA.
What is the difference between three vaccines Pfizer, Moderna, Johnson & Johnson?
The Johnson & Johnson vaccine requires only one single dose, while both Pfizer’s and Moderna’s vaccines are 2 shots.
Pfizer’s BioNTech and Moderna vaccines are different in use of mRNA as compared to traditional vaccines.
Instead of introducing a weakened or an inactivated germ into your body, this vaccine injects mRNA, the genetic material that our cells read to form proteins, into your upper arm muscle.
It teaches your body the way to make the protein that triggers antibody production so if the important virus later enters your body, your system will recognize it.
Following Table will give you a brief overview between the Vaccine Variants:-
|Type of vaccine||Pfizer||Johnson & Johnson||Moderna|
|How it works||Uses RNA to teach the immune system to target the virus’s surface, preventing infection.||Teaches the immune system to attack the protein the virus uses to infect other cells. The instructions are carried by a non-dangerous virus.||Uses RNA to teach the immune system to target the virus’s surface, preventing infection.|
|Storage Conditions||Two weeks at freezer temperatures (-4°F), five days in the refrigerator (36° to 46°F)||At least three months at refrigerator temperatures||One month at refrigerator temperatures|
|Doses needed per person||1 Shot (Three Weeks Apart)||Only 1 Shot||2 Shot (4 Weeks Apart)|
|Status of availability||Available & FDA Authorized||Available & FDA Authorized||Available & FDA Authorized|
Side Effects of Covid-19 Vaccine:
In the study of vaccinology, shots that trigger a spread of side effects during tons of recipients are mentioned as reactogenic.
All of these three vaccines and actually, most if not all the Covid-19 vaccines that have reported data so far fall into the reactogenic category.
The Committee on Immunization Practices, an expert panel that helps the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) set vaccination policies, advised hospitals early within the rollout that they might want to stagger vaccinations among employees just just in case some feel too unwell to work the day after being vaccinated.
The most common side effects are injection site pain, fatigue, headache, muscle pain, and pain in joints.
Some people within the clinical trials have reported fever as a major side effect. With the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines, side effects are more common after the second dose.
Younger adults, who have more robust and strong immune systems, reported more side effects than older adults.
To be clear: These side effects are a sign of positive activation of our immune system to fight the virus. Side effects are not the visible indicators that the vaccine is unsafe.
To date there aren’t any serious, long term side effects associated with receipt of these vaccines, which may be closely monitored as their use expands.
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